Geography Syllabus PPSC Exam

Updated on: Mar 5, 2013
Section A

1. Geomorphology : Factors controlling landform development: endogenetic and exogenetic forces, origin of the earth, physical conditions of the earth’s interior, continental drift, isostasy, plate tectonics, mountain building, volcanicity, earthquakes, concept of geomorphic cycle landforms associated with fluvial, arid , glacial, coastal and karst cycle.
2. Climatology : Temperature and pressure belts of the world, heat budget of the earth, atmospheric circulation, planetary and local winds, monsoons and jet streams, air masses and fronts, temperate and tropical cyclones, types and distribution of precipitation, Koppen’s and Thornthwaite’s classification of world climate, hydrological cycle, climatic change.
3. Oceanography : Ocean bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, temperature and salinity of the oceans, ocean deposits, ocean currents and tides, marine resources-biotic, mineral and energy resources.
4. Environmental Geography : Human ecological adaptation, transformation of nature by man, ecosystems and management, global ecological imbalances-problems of pollution, global warming, reduction in biodiversity and depletion of forests. Impact of environment , on morbidity, mortality, fertility, distribution and mobility of population.

Section B

1. Human Geography : Areal differentiation, regional synthesis, dichotomy and dualism, environmentalism, quantitative revolution, radicalism, Behaviorism and humanism, cultural regions of the world.
2. Economic Geography : World economic development : measurement and problems, world resources and their distribution, energy crisis, the limits to growth, world agriculture- typology of agricultural regions, agricultural inputs and productivity, food and nutrition problems, famine: causes, effects and remedies, world industries: locational patterns and problems of iron & steel, cotton textile, automobile, chemical and ship building industries, patterns of world trade, economic development and globalisation.
3. Population and settlement Geography : Growth and distribution of world population: population attributes: factors and world patterns of sex-ratio and age composition literacy, work force, causes and consequences of migration, concepts of over under and optimum population, population problems of more developed and less developed countries, relationship of population and development. Hierarchy of urban settlements, concept of primate city and rank-size rule, functional classification of towns, sphere of urban influence, rural-urban fringe, problems of urbanization.
4. Models, Theories and laws in Human Geography : Malthusian, Marxian and Demographic Transition model, Central Place theories of Christaller and losch, Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location, Weber’s model of industrial location, Rostov’s model of stages of economic development.

Section C

1. Geography of India : Physical Setting - Space relationship of India with neighboring countries, relief, drainage system and watersheds, Physiographic regions, mechanism of Indian monsoons, tropical cyclones and western disturbances, climatic regions, natural vegetation, soil types and their distributions.
2. Resources : Land, surface and ground-water, minerals, iron ore copper, zinc, oil and natural gas, coal, thermal and hydro electricity their distribution, utilisation and conservation, energy crisis.
3. Institutional factors-land holdings, land tenure and land reforms, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability, irrigation, significance of dry farming, livestock resources, white revolution, blue revolution, agricultural regionalisation, agro-climatic zones.
4. Industry : Distribution and locational factors of cotton, iron and steel, fertilizer , paper, drugs and pharmaceutical, automobile and cottage industries, industrial regionalisation, new industrial policy, multinationals and liberalisation.
5. Transport, Communication and Trade : Road, railway and airway, roles in regional development, growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade, trade balance, free trade and export promotion zones, developments in communication technology and its impact on economy and society.
6. Cultural Setting : Racial and ethnic diversities, scheduled castes and tribes and their problems, role of language, religion and tradition in the formation of cultural regions, growth, distribution and density of population, population attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, migration (inter-regional, intra-regional and international) and associated problems, population problems and policies.

Section D
  • Geography of Punjab and Contemporary issues
  • Land : Relief, drainage, climate, soils, vegetation and power resources.
  • People : Numbers, distribution and density, growth of population, migration, population composition, urbanization.
  • Economy : Characteristics of agriculture, water resources and irrigation, green revolution and its implications, distribution and production of crops : wheat, rice cotton and sugarcane, agricultural marketing, contract farming, agricultural diversification, livestock and dairying, problems of agriculture, social forestry and agro-forestory, distribution and production of industries: cotton textile, hosiery, sugar and engineering, problems of industrialization.
  • Road and Rail transport, interstate trade.
  • Regional geography of Majha, Doaba, Malwa and their main characteristics
  • Problems of border areas along the international boundary, disputes on sharing of water resources, floods, droughts, epidemics, earth quakes, changes in patterns of land use, population growth and the problem of food security and food storage, disparities in economic development, concept of sustainable development, problem of soil erosion.
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