# Electrical Engineering: PPSC Exam Syllabus

Updated on: Mar 5, 2013

**Section A****1. Electrical Circuits - Theory and applications :**Circuit components, network graphs, KCL, KVL, circuit analysis methods - nodal analysis, mesh analysis, basis network theorems and applications, transient analysis: RL, RC and RLC circuits, sinusoidal steady state analysis, resonant, circuits and applications, coupled circuits and applications,balanced 3-phase circuits. Two port networks, driving point and transfer functions, poles and zeroes of network functions. Elements of network synthesis. Filter-theory:design and applications, Active filters.

**2. Signals & Systems :**representation of continuous-time and discrete- time signals & systems, LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of signals DFT,FFT processing of analog signals through discrete time systems.

**3. E.M. Theory :**Maxwells equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection and refraction of plane waves. Transmission line: Distributed parameter circuits, Travelling and standing waves, impedance matching.

**4. Measurement and Instrumentation :**Error analysis, measurement of current, voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency, bridge measurements. Electronic measuring instruments: multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum analyser, distortion-meter. Transducers - thermocouple, thermistor. LVDT, strain-gauge, piezo-electric crystal. Use of transducers in measurements of non-electrical quantities. Data acquisition systems.

**Section B****1. Analog Electronics :**Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode, circuits clipping, clamping rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current mirror, Amplifiers: single and multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers, frequency response of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters, sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation, single transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. Power Supplies.

**2. Digital Electronics :**Boolean algebra, minimization of Boolean functions, logic gates, digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers.

**3. Power Electronics and Electric Drives :**Semiconductor power devices: diode transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET static characteristics and principles of operation, triggering circuits, phase control rectifiers, bridge converters, fully controlled and half-controlled, principles of thyristor choppers and inverters, basic concepts of speed control of d.c. and a.c. motor drives. Applications of variable-speed drives.

**4. Microprocessor & Microcomputers :**8-bit microprocessor: architecture, CPU module design, memory interfacing, I/O,Peripheral controllers, Multiprocessing. IBM PC architecture: overview, introduction to DOS, Advanced microprocessors.

**Section C****1. Energy Conversion :**Principles of electromechanical energy conversion: Torque and e.m.f in rotating machines. DC machines - characteristics and performance analysis, starting and speed control of motors.

**2. Transformers :**Principles of operation and analysis, regulation, efficiency, 3-phase transformers. 3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines: Characteristics and performance analysis, speed control. Special machines: Stepper motors, brushless DC motors, permanent magnet motors, single-phase motors, FHP

**3. Control Systems :**Elements of control systems, block-diagram representation, open-loop & closed-loop systems ,principle and applications of feedback LTI systems: time-domain and transform-domain analysis. Stability: Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Nyquists criterion, Bode-plots, Design of lead lag compensators. Proportional, PI, PID controllers. State variable representation and analysis of control systems. Principles of discrete-control systems.

**4. Electrical Engineering Materials :**Electrical/electronic behaviour of materials: conductivity, free-electrons and band theory, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor, p-n junction, solar cells, super-conductivity. Dielectric behaviour of materials, polarization phenomena, piezo-electric phenomena. Magnetic materials, behaviour and application.

**Section D****1. Power Systems analysis and Control :**Steady state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables, principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution , per-unit quantities, bus admittance and impedance matrices, load flow, voltage control and power factor correction, economic operation, symmetrical components, analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concept of system stability: swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC tranmission, FACTS. Computer control and automation: Introduction to energy control centers, various states of a power system, SCADA systems and RTUs, Active power control, Speed control of generators, tieline control, frequency control. Economic dispatch.

**2. Power system protection :**Principle of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. Concept of solid state relays. Circuit breakers. computer aided protection: Introduction, line bus, generator, transformer protection, numeric relays and application of DSP to protection.

**3. Non-conventional Energy Sources and Energy Management :**Introduction to the energy problem, difficulties with conventional energy sources. Wind-energy: Basics of Wind turbine aerodynamics, wind energy conversion systems and their integration into electrical grid. Solar-Energy: thermal conversion: photovoltaic conversion. Wave-energy. Importance of Energy Management - Energy audit, energy economics: discount rate, payback period, internal rate of return, life cycle costing.

**4. Electrical Machine Design :**Modes of heat dissipation, Temperature gradients, types of enclosures and ventilations. Methods of cooling. Calculations of MMF for air gap and teeth, Real and apparent flux densities, iron losses, field form, leakeage flux, specific slot permeance. Windings for D.C and A.C machines and their layout . Types of transformer windings, design of core, windings and cooling tank, transformer performance calculations. Design of squirrel-cage and wound rotor type of three phase induction motor.