# Physics: PPSC Exam Syllabus

Updated on: Mar 4, 2013

**Section A****Mechanics and Relativity :**Lagranges equation and its applications to linear harmonic oscillator, simple pendulum and central force problems.

Eulerian angles, inertia tensor, principal moments of inertia. Eulers equation of motion of a rigid body, force-free motion of a rigid body. Gyroscope.

Lorentz transformations-length contraction, time dilation, addition of velocities, aberration and Doppler effect, mass-energy relation, simple applications to a decay process. Minkowski diagram, four dimensional momentum vector. Covariance of equations of physics.

**Statistical Physics :**Scope of statistical physics, basic ideas about probability, concept of macrostates, microstates, thermodynamic probability, effect of constraints on the system, distribution of n particles in two compartments, deviation from the state of maximum probability, equilibrium state of a dynamic system, distribution of distinguishable particles in k compartments of unequal sizes. Maxwell-Boltzmann Statistics, Bose-Einstien Statistics, Fermi Dirac Statistics and their simple applications.

**Section B****Electrodynamics :**Multipole expansion of scalar potential. Method of images and its applications. Potential and field due to a dipole, force and torque on a dipole in an external field. Dielectrics and polarisation.

Displacement current and Maxwells equations. Wave equations in vacuum, Poynting theorem. Vector and scalar potentials. Gauge invariance, Lorentz and Coulomb gauges. Electromagnetic field tensor, covariance of Maxwells equations. Wave equations in isotropic dielectrics, reflection and refraction at the boundary of two dielectrics.

**Geometrical and Physical Optics :**Matrix methods in paraxial optics- thin lens formula, nodal planes, system of two thin lenses.

Multiple beam interference and Fabry- Perot interferometer.

Elements of fibre optics-attenuation ; pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index fibres; material dispersion . Lasers, characteristics of laser light-spatial and temporal coherence. Focusing of laser beams and applications. Holography and simple applications.

**Section C****Quantum Mechanics :**Schroedinger equation for a free particle. Solution of the Schroedinger equation for a particle in a box, particle in a finite well, linear harmonic oscillator. Reflection and transmission by a potential step and by a rectangular barrier. Particle in a three dimensional box. The angular momentum problem. The hydrogen atom. The spin half problem and properties of Pauli spin matrices.

**Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy :**Fine structure of hydrogen atom. L-S coupling, J-J coupling. Spectroscopic notation of atomic states. Zeeman effect.

Elementary theory of rotational, vibrational and electronic spectra of diatomic molecules. Frank-Condon principle and its applications. Raman effect and molecular structure. Laser Raman spectroscopy. Elementary theory and applications of NMR. Elementary ideas about Lamb shift and its significance.

**Section D****Solid State Physics and Electronics :**Cubic crystal structure. Band theory of solids-conductors, insulators and semiconductors. Elements of superconductivity, Meissner effect, Josephson junctions and applications. Elementary ideas about high temperature superconductivity.

Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, p-n-p and n-p-n transistors. Amplifiers and oscillators. Op-amps. FET, JFET and MOSFET. Digital electronics-Boolean identities, De Morgans laws, Logic gates and truth tables. Simple logic circuits. Thermistors, solar cells. Fundamentals of microprocessors and digital computers.

**Nuclear and Particle Physics :**Semi-empirical mass formula and its applications. Ground state of a deuteron. Meson theory of nuclear forces. Salient features of nuclear forces. Shell model of the nucleus, its applications and limitations. Violation of parity in beta decay. Gamma decay and internal conversion. Elementary ideas about Mossbauer spectroscopy. Nuclear fission, fusion and Nuclear reactors.

Classification of elementary particles and their interactions. Conservation laws. Quark structure of hadrons. Elementary ideas about Unification of Forces. Physics of neutrinos.