# Electronics Engineering: PPSC Exam Syllabus

Updated on: Mar 4, 2013

**Max. Marks : 100**

**Time : 3 Hours**

The paper will consist of two parts; Section-A and Section-B. The details are as under :

**Section - A**will have 14 short answer type questions, consisting of two marks each. These questions will be covered from the entire syllabus.

**Section - B**will have FOUR groups, Each group will consist of two questions having 18 marks each.

**Note :**The candidates are required to attempt section-A and one question from each group of section-B.

**Group I****1. Electrical Circuits :**Theory and Applications - Circuit components, network graphs, KCL, KVL, circuit analysis methods: nodal analysis, mesh analysis, basic network theorems and applications, transient analysis: RL, RC and RLC circuits, sinusoidal steady state analysis, resonant circuits and applications, coupled circuits and applications, balanced 3-phase circuits. Two-port networks, driving point and transfer functions, poles and zeros of network functions. Elements of network synthesis. Filter-theory: design and applications. Active filters. Circuit simulation - Input formats, methods of education formulation, solution of equations, output formats, SPICE.

**E.M. Theory -**Maxwells equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection and refraction of plane waves. Transmission line - Distributed parameter circuits, Traveling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith chart. Waveguides - parallel plane guide, TE, TM and TEM waves, rectangular and cylindrical wave guides, resonators, Planar transmission lines, stripline, microstripline.

**1. Analog Electronics :**Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode, circuits clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current mirror, Amplifiers: single and multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers, frequency-response of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters, sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation, single transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. Power Supplies.

**2. Electronic Engineering Materials :**Electronic behaviours of materials: conductivity, free-electrons and band theory, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor, p-n junction, solar cells, super-conductivity. Dielectric behaviors of materials, polarization phenomena, piezo-electric phenomena. Magnetic materials, behaviour and application. Photonic materials: refractive index, absorption and emission of light, optical fibres, lasers and opto- electronic materials.

**Group II****1. Digital Electronics :**Boolean algebra, minimisation of Boolean functions, logic gates, digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits code converters, multiplexers and decoders Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories. Logic implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA).

**Semiconductor power devices: diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET-static characteristics and principles of operation, triggering circuits, phase control rectifiers, bridge converters, fully-controlled and half-controlled, principles of thyristor choppers and inverters, basic concepts of speed control of dc and a.c. motor drives. Applications of variable-speed drives.**

2. Power Electronics and Electric Drives :

2. Power Electronics and Electric Drives :

**3. Microprocessors and microcomputers :**8-bit microprocessor: architecture, CPU, module design, memory interfacing, I/O, Peripheral controllers, Multiprocessing. IBMPC architecture: overview, introduction to DoS Advanced microprocessors.

**4. IC Technology :**Overview of IC Technology, Unit-steps used in IC fabrication: wafer cleaning, photo-lithography, wet and dry etching, oxidation, diffusion, ion-implantation, CVD and LPCVD techniques for deposition of polysilicon, silicon, silicon-nitride and silicon dioxide: metallisation and passivation.

**Group III****1. Signals & Systems :**Representation of continuous-time and discrete-time signals & systems; LTI systems; convolution, impulse response, time domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of signals DFT, EFT processing of analog signals through discrete-time systems.

**2. Analog Communication :**Random variables: continuous, discrete, probability, probability functions. Statistical averages, probability models, Random signals and noise, white noise, noise equivalent bandwidth, signal transmission with noise, signal to noise ratio. Linear CW modulation: Amplitude modulation: DSB, DSB-SC and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators, Phase and frequency modulation: PM & FM signals, narrowband FM, generation & detection of FM and PM De-emphasis, Pre-emphasis. CW modulation system: Super heterodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers, phase locked loop, SSB receiver, Signal to noise ratio calculation for AM and FM receivers.

**3. Control Systems :**Elements of control systems, block-diagram representation, open-loop & closed-loop systems, principle and applications of feedback. LTI systems: time-domain and transform-domain analysis. Stability: Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Nyquists criterion, Bode-plots, Design of lead-lad compensators. Proportional, PI, PID controllers. State-variable representation and analysis of control systems. Principles of discrete-control systems.

**4. Measurement and Instrumentation :**Error analysis, measurement of current, voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency, bridge measurements. Electronic measuring instruments, multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum-analyser, distortion-meter. Transducers: thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-gauge, piezo-electric crystal. Use of transducers in measurements of non-electrical quantities. Data-acquisition systems.

**Group IV****1. Microwaves and Antenna :**Electromagnetic radiation, Propagation of waves: ground waves, sky wave, space wave, tropospheric scatter propagation. Extraterrestrial communications. Antenna: Various types, gain, resistance, bandwidth, beam-width and polarization, effect of ground. Antenna coupling high frequency antennas; microwave antennas; special purpose antennas. Microwave Services: Klystron, magnetron, TWT, gun diodes, IMPATT, Bipolar and EFTs, Microwave integrated circuits. Microwave measurements.

**2. Digital Communication :**Pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM), Digital modulation and demodulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Error control coding: error detection and correction, linear block codes, convolution codes. Information measure and source coding. Data networks, 7-layer architecture.

**3. Satellite communication, Radar and TV :**Satellite Communication - General overview and technical characteristics, earth station equipment, satellite link design, CNR of Satellite system. Radar - Basic principles, Pulsed systems: CW Doppler radar, FMCW radar, Phase array radar. Television Systems - Television systems and standards, Black and White and Colour-TV transmission and receiver systems.

**4. Fibre Optic System :**Multiplexing - Time division multiplexing, Frequency Division multiplexing. Optical properties of materials - Refractive index absorption and emission of light, optical fibres, lasers and optoelectronic materials Fibre optic links.