Chemistry Syllabus PPSC Exam

Updated on: Mar 4, 2013
Section A

1. Atomic Structure : Quantum theory, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, Schrodinger wave equation (time independent). Interpretation of wave function, particle in one-dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave functions. Shapes of s, p and d orbitals.
2. Chemical Bonding : Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, factors affecting stability of ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born- Haber cycle, covalent bond and its general characteristics, polarities of bonds in molecules and their dipole moments. Valence bond theory, concept of resonance and resonance energy. Molecular orbital theory (LCAO method), bonding in homonuclear molecules: H2+, H2 to Ne2, NO, CO, HF, CN, Comparison of valence bond and molecular orbital theories, bond order, bond strength and bond length.
3. Solid State : Forms of solids, law of constancy of interfacial angles, crystal systems and crystal classes (crystallographic groups). Designation of crystal faces, lattice structures and unit cell. Laws of rational indices. Bragg’s law. X-ray diffraction by crystals. Close packing, radius ratio rules, calculation of some limiting radius ratio values. Structures of NaCI, ZnS, CsCI, CaF2, CdI2 and rutile. Imperfections in crystals, stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric defects, impurity defects, semi-conductors. Elementary study of liquid crystals.
4. The Gaseous State : Equation of state for real gases, intermolecular interactions, liquefication of gases and critical phenomena, Maxwell’s distribution of speeds, intermolecular collisions, collisions on the wall and effusion.
5. Thermodynamics : Thermodynamic systems, states and processes, work, heat and internal energy, first law of thermodynamics, work done on the systems and heat absorbed in different types of processes, calorimetry, energy and enthalpy changes in various processes and their temperature dependence.
Second law of Thermodynamics - entropy as a state function, entropy changes in various processes, entropy-reversibility and irreversibility, free energy functions, criteria for equilibrium, relation between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic quantities, Nernst heat theorem and third law of thermodynamics.

Section B

1. Phase equilibria and solutions : Phase equilibria in pure substances, Clausius-Clapeyron equation, phase diagram for a pure substance, phase equilibria in binary systems, partially miscible liquids-upper and lower critical solution temperatures. Ideal and real solutions, colligative properties.
2. Electrochemistry : Debye-Huckel theory of strong electrolytes and Debye-Huckel limiting Law for various equilibrium and transport properties.
Galvanic cells, concentration cells, electrochemical series, measurement of e.m.f. of cells and its applications, fuel cells and batteries.
3. Chemical Kinetics : Concentration dependence of rate of reaction, differential and integral rate equations for zeroth, first, second and fractional order reactions. Rate equation-involving reverse, parallel, consecutive and chain reactions, effect of temperature and pressure on rate constant. Collision and transition state theories.
4. Photochemistry : Absorption of light, decay of excited state by different routes, photochemical reactions between hydrogen and halogens and their quantum yields.
5. Surface Phenomena and Catalysis : Adsorption from gases and solutions on solid adsorbents, adsorption isotherms-Langmuir and B.E.T. isotherms, determination of surface area, characteristics and mechanism of reaction on hetrogeneous catalysts.
6. Polymeric Systems
Physical Chemistry of polymers : Polymer solutions and their thermodynamic properties, number and weight average molecular weights of polymers. Determination of molecular weights by sedimentation, light scattering, osmotic pressure, viscosity, end group analysis methods.
Preparation and properties of polymers : Organic polymers.- polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, Teflon, nylon, Terylene, synthetic and natural rubber. Inorganic polymers- phosphonitrilic halides, borazines, silicones and silicates.
Biopolymers : Basis bonding in proteins, DNA and RNA.

Section C

1. Coordination Chemistry
Electronic configurations, introduction to theories of bonding in transition metal complexes. Valence bond theory, crystal field theory and its modification, application of theories in the explanation of magnetism and electronic spectra of metal complexes.
Isomerism in coordination compounds. IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds, stereochemistry of complexes with 4 and 6 coordination numbers, chelat effect.
Synthesis and structures of metal carbonyls (Mn, Cr, Fe, Co & Ni).
Complexes with aromatic systems, synthesis, structure and bonding in metal olefin complexes.
2. General Chemistry of ‘f’ Block Elements : Lanthanides and actinides, oxidation states, magnetic and spectral properties, lanthanide contraction.
3. Non-Aqueous Solvents : Reactions in liquid NH3, HF, SO2 and H2SO4.
4. Delocalised Covalent Bonding : Aromaticity, anti-aromaticity, annulenes, azulenes, tropolones.
5. Oxidation and Reduction : Dehydrogenation of Hydrocarbons. Oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes and Ketones. Oxidation involving cleavage of carbon carbon bonds using HIO4, O3, Pb (OAC)4 Reduction with Li AIH4 and Na BH4 Catalytic hydrogenation and Alkali metal liquid ammonia reductions.

Section D

1. Reactive Intermediates :
Carbocation, Carbanion, Free radicals, carbenes and Nitrenes (Structure stability and reactions).
2. Rearrangement : Benzidine, Beckmann, Schamidt Wagner, Meerwin, Cope and Claisen rearrangement.
3. Heterocyclics : Structure formula of five and six membered heterocyclics with one hetero atom (Furan, Pyrroll thiophene and Pyridine). Electrophillic substitution reactions. Mention of formula of Pyrrolidine, Piperidine, Quinoline and Isoquinoline.
4. Natural Products : Introduction to Stereoids, Terpenoids and alkaloids. Nomenclature, Isoprene rule, Synthesis and structure elucidation of camphor, citral, Nicotine with special mention of estrone.
5. Spectroscopy and Structures : Electronic transitions, principles of U. V. and I.R.Spectroscopy. Molecular Vibrations. I.R. Absorption frequencies of common functional groups. Application of U. V. and I.R.spectra for determining structure of simple organic molecules. Principles of N.M.R. spectroscopy the P.M.R. spectrum, number of signals, peak areas and equivalent, non equivalent protons, position of signals and chemical shift, shielding and deshielding of protons, proton counting, splitting of signals and spin coupling constant, magnetic equivalence of protons. Principles of organic mass spectroscropy, Problems based upon N.M.R., I.R., U.V. mass and analytical data. Only problems involving interpretation of spectroscopic data leading to structure determination may be done.
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